Posted by on March 6, 2019

Limbani Nsapato comments on the article “The keys to a peaceful and prosperous Africa” 

Limbani Eliya Nsapato, Country Representative, Edukans Foundation, Lilongwe, Malawi.

Samuel Asnake Wollie’s treatise on “The keys to a peaceful and prosperous Africa” is sobering in pointing out the need to invest in youth and adult literacy programs  and particularly the need to move away from focusing on brick and mortar facilities to problem solving, and more importantly to prosperity and sustainable development.

Attempts are being made in some African countries like Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe, to bring more life into literacy programs beyond basic literacy to introduction of entrepreneurial skills and soft skills.  These countries have for instance adopted REFLECT methodology (thou to a small scale) and have encouraged learners to focus on literacy for livelihoods which make literacy programs more lively and relevant. I have seen that programs which encourage agribusiness, and other skills are more attractive to learners especially males ones than those that address functional literacy or basic literacy. In this regard literacy is defined and seen as a continuum and life long experience rather than an event or short term process of acquiring basic literacy and numeracy skills. Literacy programs should be seen as relevant by learners to tackle dropout, and should be presented in attractive languages (especially mother tongue) for greater affinity and enculturation. 

A narrow conceptualization of literacy cannot solve Africa’s problems and bring about prosperity. This has important implication on the curriculum as well as mechanisms for monitoring and evaluation of youth and adult learning and education programs.  This calls for the need for governments to rethink literacy programs and expand them beyond the three Rs. It requires political will to review and expand curriculum as well as provide adequate financing in light of international financing best practices and benchmarks , and data that shows success stories from the programs.

Unfortunately most African programs are underfunded, and show little evidence of broader definition of literacy to encapsulate lifelong learning, livelihoods and entrepreneurship. The scenario make it difficult for these programs to have a life-long sustainable effect on the learners and so, make a dent on poverty and enhance prosperity. Research, and learning from each other, is key in driving literacy and education quality improvement. This is manifested in curriculum reviews, improved learner materials (particularly in local languages), and improved assessment learners.

While Wollie’s article has tackled some critical issues and perspectives that require attention on the continent, I think his audience could have gained a lot from his vast experience if he showed some evidence from Ethiopia and other African countries and elsewhere on how to innovate in literacy programs. As someone close to the African Office in Addis, I also expected to hear some pointers as to what the African Union and Regional Economic Communities (SADC, ECOWAS, EAC etc) are doing to promote sharing and learning across the countries. This is especially important given that the Continental Education Strategy For Africa (CESA) dedicates some paragraphs on literacy as being pivotal for solving Africa’s problems; however, there is little to show in terms of how the ambitions in CESA are being translated into reality. On the whole, Wollie has succeeded in provoking some thoughts from me (and also, I hope other readers) to discuss a topic that is critical for Africa’s prosperity. What do other commentators say?

Links to the AED 85/2018 publication in three languages: EnglishFrenchSpanish
Estos son los links para acceder a la publicación en tres idiomas: InglésFrancésEspañol
Voici les liens vers la publication en trois langues: Anglais FrançaisEspagnol

Para español favor usar google translator en los casos en que el artículo no está traducido al español

Veuillez utiliser google translator pour traduire les articles qui ne sont pas en français


  1. AMOUGOU Martial Patrice
    March 6, 2019

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    Literacy is presented as an educational alternative that must be seriously considered in order to give it a proper place in the development process of African countries. We sincerely believe that, beyond motivation, it is important to rethink the educational policies in force in Africa. In most of these countries, the classic school approach is the one promoted. Everything is being put in place in terms of infrastructure construction, staff training, financing and even organization, to the detriment of literacy, which remains embryonic in every respect. The way policies design education has a significant impact on people’s behaviour towards educational provision. It is recognized in these environments that social success depends on school diplomas. Knowledge, skills and attitudes acquired outside the traditional school are not highly regarded in African communities.
    However, by putting in place a mechanism that values the traditional knowledge, as well as national languages and cultures of these communities, Africa would be less dependent on the outside world and would experience a higher rate of growth and development.
    Now, for this to happen, Africans themselves, including leaders, must change the order of priorities, favouring the national interest over selfish interests, which are often supported by allies elsewhere. Everything needs to be questioned in the implementation of education systems in Africa, in terms of access, equity, financing and management. A lot of effort needs to be made, especially in making courageous decisions.

    l’alphabétisation se présente comme une alternative éducative qu’il convient de penser avec sérieux, afin de lui donner la place convenable dans le processus de développement des pays africain. nous pensons sincèrement qu’au-delà de la motivation, il importe que soient repensées les politiques éducatives en vigueur en Afrique. dans la plupart de ces pays, c’est l’approche classique de l’école qui est promue. tout est mis en place en termes de construction des infrastructures, de formation des personnels, de financements et même d’organisation, au détriment de l’alphabétisation qui demeure embryonnaire en tous points. la manière dont les politiques conçoivent l’éducation a un impact considérable sur le comportement des populations vis-à-vis des offres d’éducation. il est admis dans ces environnements que la réussite sociale est tributaire des diplômes obtenus à l’école. les connaissances, savoir-faire et savoir-être acquis en dehors de l’école classique ne jouissent pas d’une grande considération dans les communautés africaines.
    pourtant, en mettant en place un dispositif qui valorise les savoirs traditionnels, les langues et cultures nationales de ces communautés, l’Afrique serait moins dépendante de l’extérieur et connaitrait un rythme de croissance et de développement plus important.
    maintenant, pour que cela oit fait, il faut que les africains eux-mêmes, notamment les dirigeants, changent l’ordre des priorités, en privilégiant l’intérêt national au détriment des intérêts égoïstes très souvent soutenus par des alliés d’ailleurs. tout est à questionner dans la mise en place des dispositifs éducatifs an Afrique, en termes d’accès, d’équité, de financement et de management. be aucoup d’efforts sont à consentir, notamment dans la prise de décisions courageuses.

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